In all, it was supplied with 181 miles (291 km) of Italian hemp for sounding. Documents from this period reveal the interest and excitement generated by ice. Frank Evers Bed was appointed prosector. Challenger embarked from Portsmouth, England on December 21, 1872 and changed the course of scientific history. Locations visited here include Hale Cove, Gray Harbour, Port Grappler, Tom Bay, all in the vicinity of Wellington Island; Puerta Bueno, near Hanover Island; Isthmus Bay, near the Queen Adelaide Archipelago; and Port Churruca, near Santa Ines Island. The expedition was named after the naval vessel that undertook the trip, HMS Challenger. [9], December 1873 to February 1874 was spent sailing on a roughly south-eastern track from the Cape of Good Hope to the parallel of 60 degrees south. The historic voyage of the British ship HMS Challenger, conducted between 1872-1876, is often considered to be the first expedition undertaken specifically to conduct oceanographic research. In the latter part of the 19th century the British ship HMS Challenger was specially equipped for a scientific expedition. [9], Challenger departed Japan in mid-June 1875, heading east across the Pacific to a point due north of the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii), and then turning south, making landfall at the end of July at Honolulu on the Hawaiian island of Oahu. Service history Edit. They believed that the conditions of constant cold temperature, darkness, and lack of currents, waves, or seismic events provided such a stable environment that evolution would slow or stop entirely. The Mariana Trench is part of a global network of deep troughs that cut across the ocean floor. INTRODUCTION . One exception: The Challenger Expedition (1872-1876) Chief The college hopes to rekindle the spirit of the HMS Challenger. Additionally, studying rocks from ocean trenches could lead to a better understanding of the earthquakes that create the powerful and devastating tsunamis seen around the Pacific Rim, geologists say. In 1951, the British vessel H.M.S. This page was last edited on 27 December 2020, at 17:45. The HMS Challenger Voyage (Note: All quotations and line drawings related to HMS Challenger are taken directly from the Challenger volumes, unless otherwise noted.) [14], Findings from the Challenger expedition continued to be published until 1895, nineteen years after the completion of its journey. [9], When the voyage resumed in June 1874, the route went east from Sydney to Wellington in New Zealand, followed by a large loop north into the Pacific calling at Tonga and Fiji, and then back westward to Cape York in Australia by the end of August. Though he was not among the civilian scientific staff, Tizard would later help write the official account of the expedition, and also become a Fellow of the Royal Society. It made significant studies of the ocean floor. To measure depth, they would lower a line with a weight attached to it until it reached the sea floor. In 1951, the HMS Challenger II undertook The deepest depth measured was in the Mariannas Trench. During this period, there was a detour in April and May 1873, sailing from Bermuda north to Halifax and back, crossing the Gulf Stream twice with the reverse journey crossing further to the east. © 2021 DEEPSEA CHALLENGE, National Geographic. 参考文献. scientists could pick specific samples. The majority of the Mariana Trench is now a U.S. protected zone as part of the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument , established by President George W. Bush in … John Murray, who supervised the publication, described the report as "the greatest advance in the knowledge of our planet since the celebrated discoveries of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries". [3], On 23 March 1875, at sample station number 225 located in the southwest Pacific Ocean between Guam and Palau, the crew recorded a sounding of 4,475 fathoms (26,850 ft; 8,184 m) deep, which was confirmed by an additional sounding. [5] Challenger used mainly sail power during the expedition; the steam engine was used only for powering the dredge. HMS Challenger_0.JPG The net effect was a setback for the proponents of evolution. [9], After several weeks in Hong Kong, the expedition departed in early January 1875 to retrace their route south-east towards New Guinea. The first islands visited were the Aru Islands, followed by the nearby Kai Islands. Why? The Challenger had an assignment from the British government to study the physical and biological conditions of the oceans. February 1874 was spent travelling south and then generally eastwards in the vicinity of the Antarctic Circle, with sightings of icebergs, pack ice and whales. Discover the voyage and specimens that started the science of … The extraordinary pioneering oceanographic expedition of HMS Challenger arrived in Melbourne in 1874. The period from September to October 1873 was spent crossing the Atlantic from Bahia to the Cape of Good Hope, touching at Tristan da Cunha on the way. Save and share your favourite specimens using My Challenger. [1] Other naval officers included Commander John Maclear. Found the deepest known part of the ocean, at 10,838 meters deep. [13] Challenger's discovery of this depth was a key finding of the expedition in broadening oceanographic knowledge about the ocean's depth and extent and now bears the vessel's name, the Challenger Deep. During the voyage, Challenger's crew tested the reversing thermometer, which could measure temperature at specified depths. Before reaching Wellington (on New Zealand's North Island), brief stops were made at Port Hardy (on d'Urville Island) and Queen Charlotte Sound and Challenger passed through the Cook Strait to reach Wellington. The expedition was led by British naturalist John Murray and … [2], The first leg of the expedition took the ship from Portsmouth (December 1872) south to Lisbon (January 1873) and then on to Gibraltar. The first and only time humans descended into the Challenger Deep was more than 50 years ago. [6], Because of the novelty of the expedition, some of the equipment was invented or specially modified for the occasion. Average global ocean temperature change is 0.59 degrees C. The Royal Society, University of Edinburgh and Mechiston Castle School sponsored the expedition around the globe to explore the deep oceans. They form when two tectonic plates collide. She was the flagship of the Australia Station between 1866 and 1870. [18], Oceanographic research expedition (1872–1876). [citation needed], Challenger then headed east into the open sea, before turning to the south-east and making landfall at Humboldt Bay (now Yos Sudarso Bay) on the north coast of New Guinea. Mop heads attached to the wooden plank would sweep across the sea floor and release organisms from the ocean bottom to be caught in the nets. The water pressure at the bottom of the trench is a crushing eight tons per square inch—or about a thousand times the standard atmospheric pressure at sea level. Located in the western Pacific east of the Philippines and an average of approximately 124 miles (200 kilometers) east of the Mariana Islands, the Mariana Trench is a crescent-shaped scar in the Earth’s crust that measures more than 1,500 miles (2,550 kilometers) long and 43 miles (69 kilometers) wide on average. The new captain was Frank Tourle Thomson. A new study using ocean data from the 135 year old HMS Challenger oceanographic expedition combined with modern measurements of ocean temperatures reveals that warming of the planet can be clearly detected since 1873 and that our oceans continue to absorb the … Scientists are particularly interested in microorganisms living in the trenches, which they say could lead to breakthroughs in biomedicine and biotechnology. DEEPSEA CHALLENGE / The Expedition / The Mariana Trench. The Silent Landscape: the Scientific Voyage of HMS Challenger.Joseph Henry Press, 2003. Submersibles and self-contained diving. If Mount Everest were dropped into the Mariana Trench, its peak would still be more than a mile (1.6 kilometers) underwater. By clicking Submit, you accept our Terms of Use. The sinker often had a small container attached to it that would allow for the collection of bottom sediment samples. From here, the route went south across the equator to Fernando de Noronha during September 1873, and onwards that same month to Bahia (now called Salvador) in Brazil. [16], A large number of scientists worked on categorising the material brought back from the expedition including the palaeontologist Gabriel Warton Lee. Prompted by Charles Wyville Thomson—of the University of Edinburgh and Merchiston Castle School—the Royal Society of London obtained the use of Challenger from the Royal Navy and in 1872 modified the ship for scientific tasks, equipping it with separate laboratories for natural history and chemistry. In fact, some question whether Piccard’s fish was actually a form of sea cucumber. All rights reserved. The Ch… She took part in operations against Mexico, including the occupation of Veracruz in 1862. The ship arrived in New Zealand in late June and left in early July. Afterwards, this type of thermometer was used extensively until the second half of the 20th century. When collecting water, water from the surface was collected simply with a bucket. The dredges consisted of metal nets attached to a wooden plank and dragged across the sea floor. The Voyage of HMS Challenger. But at the bottom, the Trieste‘s floodlight illuminated a creature that Piccard thought was a flatfish, a moment that Piccard would later describe with excitement in a book about his journey. Pristine Seas Expeditions The expedition was named after the naval vessel that undertook the trip, HMS Challenger. The period from February to July 1873 was spent crossing the Atlantic westwards from the Canary Islands to the Virgin Islands, then heading north to Bermuda, east to the Azores, back to Madeira, and then south to the Cape Verde Islands. She was the flagship of the Australia Station between 1866 and 1870. [2] The second-in-command, and the most senior officer present throughout the entire expedition, was Commander John Maclear. Sixteen of the ships 18 guns were removed, and in their place were installed miles of sampling rope and wire, thermometers, water bottles, and bottom samplers. [citation needed], The crew used a variety of dredges and trawls to collect biological samples. Photo Gallery: U.S. Marine Protected Areas. The HMS Challenger 2 Expedition. The ship's course was then set westward, reaching Raine Island—on the outer edge of the Great Barrier Reef— at the end of August and thence arriving at Cape York, at the tip of Australia's Cape York Peninsula. THE HMS Challenger Expedition Discoveries 1858 Portsmouth ,England What? The route then took the ship north-eastward and away from the ice regions in March 1874, with the expedition reaching Melbourne in Australia later that month. ISBN 0-309-08904-2; Report Of The Scientific Results of the Exploring Voyage of H.M.S. Permits for research in the monument, including in the Sirena Deep, have been secured from the U.S. The History of the Challenger Expedition In 1870, Charles Wyville Thomson (right), Professor of Natural History at Edinburgh University, persuaded the Royal Society of London to ask the British Government to furnish one of Her Majesty's ships for a prolonged voyage of exploration across the oceans of the globe. Where? From there, they continued on to Samboangan, but took a different route through the interior of the Philippines, this time touching at the island of Zebu. [3] The result was the Report Of The Scientific Results of the Exploring Voyage of H.M.S. [15] The report and specimens are currently held at the British Natural History Museum and the report has been made available online. Thomas Huxley stated that he expected to see "zoological antiquities which in the tranquil and little changed depths of the ocean have escaped the causes of destruction at work in the shallows and represent the predominant population of a past age." [citation needed], The expedition left Tahiti in early October, swinging to the west and south of the Tubuai Islands and then heading to the south-east before turning east towards the South American coast. Thank you for registering to receive DEEPSEA CHALLENGE updates. The deepest part of the trench is known as the Challenger Deep.It is named after the British Royal Navy survey ship HMS Challenger, whose expedition of 1872–76 made the first recordings of its depth.. A 2009 sonar mapping of the Challenger Deep from the Kilo Moana found a spot with a depth of 10,971 m (35,994 ft) (6.82 miles). Their cricket skills were modest but the scientific legacy of this voyage of discovery was immense. Challenger during the years 1873–76 which, among many other discoveries, catalogued over 4,000 previously unknown species. Report Of The Scientific Results of the Exploring Voyage of H.M.S. The next stops were Madeira and the Canary Islands (both February 1873). All these islands are now part of Indonesia. After that, the ship was moved to Portsmouth for completion and commissioned on 15 March 1932. After a five-hour descent, the pair spent only a scant 20 minutes at the bottom and were unable to take any photographs due to clouds of silt stirred up by their passage. The Challenger expedition of 1872–1876 was a scientific program that made many discoveries to lay the foundation of oceanography. HMS Challenger II HMS Challenger was a steam corvette of the Royal Navy, launched in 1858. Willemoes-Suhm died and was buried at sea on the voyage to Tahiti. The Mariana Trench’s microscopic inhabitants might even shed light on the emergence of life on Earth. [3] Specimens brought back by Challenger were distributed to the world's foremost experts for examination, which greatly increased the expenses and time required to finalize the report. [5] By the end of the voyage, this had been reduced to 144 due to deaths, desertions, personnel being left ashore due to illness, and planned departures. To investigate the physical conditions of the deep sea in the great ocean basins—as far as the neighborhood of the Great Southern Ice Barrier—in regard to depth, temperature, circulation. So are there fish that deep? HMS Challenger was a steam-assisted Royal Navy Pearl-class corvette launched on 13 February 1858 at the Woolwich Dockyard. Long before cabled observatories were built to explore the ocean, HMS Challenger embarked on the world's first global oceanographic expedition. But nature has also proven scientists wrong many times in the past with its remarkable capacity for adaptation. Submersibles and self-contained diving. Some researchers, such as Patricia Fryer et alat University of Hawaii, have speculated that serpentine mud volcanoes located near ocean trenches might have provided the right conditions for our planet’s first life-forms. [1], The Royal Society stated the voyage's scientific goals were:[10], At each of the 360 stations the crew measured the bottom depth, temperature at different depths, observed weather and surface ocean conditions, and collected seafloor, water, and biota samples. The expedition, led by Captain George Nares, sailed from Portsmouth, England, on 21 December 1872. The next stage of the journey commenced the following month, with the route taking the ship south-westward back out into the Pacific, past the Juan Fernández Islands, before turning to the south-east and back towards South America, reaching Port Otway in the Gulf of Penas on 31 December 1875. First Part. She was the flagship of the Australia Station between 1866 and 1870.2 As part of the North America and West Indies Station she took part in 1862 in operations against Mexico, including the occupation of Vera Cruz. A small warship – HMS Challenger was obtained from the Royal Navy and for the expedition and it was converted into a ship for scientific work, equipped with separate laboratories for natural history and chemistry, microscopes and other scientific equipment on board. [citation needed], The primary thermometer used throughout the Challenger expedition was the Miller–Casella thermometer, which contained two markers within a curved mercury tube to record the maximum and minimum temperature through which the instrument traveled. Narrative Vol. George Albert Boulenger, herpetologist at the Natural History Museum, named a species of lizard, Saproscincus challengeri, after Challenger. Show search options. The distance between the surface of the ocean and the trench’s deepest point—the Challenger Deep, which lies about 200 miles (322 kilometers) southwest of the U.S. territory of Guam—is nearly 7 miles (11 kilometers). The majority of the Mariana Trench is now a U.S. protected zone as part of the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument, established by President George W. Bush in 2009. [citation needed], The scientific work was conducted by Wyville Thomson, John Murray, John Young Buchanan, Henry Nottidge Moseley, and Rudolf von Willemoes-Suhm. [3] As the first true oceanographic cruise, the Challenger expedition laid the groundwork for an entire academic and research discipline. Later theories dealing with continental drift and sea floor spreading were based on which of the two discoveries made by the HMS Challenger expedition? By March 1875, the expedition had reached the Admiralty Islands north-east of New Guinea. Advanced Search. It will review the ship's historic journey, compare current ocean research tools, technologies and techniques with those used on modern voyages, and build awareness of ocean exploration. The Voyage of H.M.S. Laboratories, extra cabins and a special dredging platform were installed. [9], Over the following three months, from September to November 1874, the expedition visited several islands and island groups while sailing from Cape York to China and Hong Kong (then a British colony). [11] Upon the retrieval of a dredge or trawl, Challenger crew would sort, rinse, and store the specimens for examination upon return. [9], After leaving the Cape Verde Islands in August 1873, the expedition initially sailed south-east and then headed west to reach St Paul's Rocks. Several of these thermometers would be lowered at various depths for recording. To collect water during the HMS Challenger expedition: Buckets and Bottles. [4], To enable it to probe the depths, 15 of Challenger's 17 guns were removed and its spars reduced to make more space available. Nothing of the sort came to pass, however; though a few organisms previously regarded as extinct were found and cataloged among the many new discoveries, the harvest was typical of what might be found in exploring any equivalent extent of new territory. The report contained 50 volumes and was over 29,500 pages in length. The crossing north-westward from Manila to Hong Kong took place in November 1874. HMS Challenger. [9] Challenger returned to Spithead, Hampshire, on 24 May 1876, having spent 713 days out of the intervening 1,250 at sea. In partnership with educators, scientists, and historians, the College of Exploration has assembled a Challenger Team to link the pioneering HMS Challenger (1872-1876) expedition with the voyages sponsored by NOAA’s Office of Ocean Exploration. For the expedition, HMS Challenger, a British Navy corvette (a small warship) was converted into the first dedicated oceanographic ship with its own laboratories, microscopes and other scientific equipment onboard. 4 year expedition First expedition funded specifically for scientific purposes Sounded the depth of the ocean Found roughly 4700 new marine species Who? While the Trieste expedition laid to rest any doubts that life could exist in the Mariana Trench, scientists still know very little about the types of organisms that reside there. Challenger's crew used methods that were developed in prior small-scale expeditions to make observations. The route touched at the Juan Fernández Islands in mid-November 1875, with Challenger reaching the port of Valparaiso in Chile a few days later. However, this design assumed that the water closer to the surface of the ocean was always warmer than that below. Fish and Wildlife Service. Until Piccard and Walsh’s historic dive, scientists had debated whether life could exist under such extreme pressure. The waters around the Fijian islands, a short distance to the north-west of Tonga, were surveyed during late July and early August 1874. The Challenger expedition returned with 4,700 never-before-seen species, including sea pigs (squishy pink potato-creatures that scoot around the sea floor on 14 legs) and faceless cusk-eels (foot-long fish with tiny, barely visible eyes and mouths on … Sponsored by the Royal Society of London, in collaboration with the University of Edinburgh, the expedition’s explicit intent was to improve understanding of the ocean and the life it supports. A survey has been made of the illustrations and photographs made during their 3‐week voyage in polar waters during February‐March 1874. “Here, in an instant, was the answer that biologists had asked for the decades,” Piccard wrote. I. HMS Challenger was a steam-assisted Royal Navy Pearl-class corvette launched on 13 February 1858 at the Woolwich Dockyard. [citation needed], The route from Wellington to Tonga went along the east coast of New Zealand's North Island, and then north and east into the open Pacific, passing by the Kermadec Islands en route to Tongatabu, the main island of the Tonga archipelago (then known as the Friendly Islands). [10], Sir Thomson believed, as did many adherents of the then-recent theory of evolution, that the deep sea would be home to "living fossils" long extinct in shallower waters, examples of "missing links". [9], Most of January 1876 was spent navigating around the southern tip of South America, surveying and touching at many of the bays and islands of the Patagonian archipelago, the Strait of Magellan, and Tierra del Fuego. In recent years, deep-ocean dredges and unmanned subs have glimpsed exotic organisms such as shrimp-like amphipods, and strange, translucent animals called holothurians. The final stage of the voyage took the ship and its crew north-eastward from Vigo, skirting the Bay of Biscay to make landfall in England. View all records Use the map or search to explore HMS Challenger's 354 calling points around the globe. But scientists say there are many new species awaiting discovery and many unanswered questions about how animals can survive in these extreme conditions. In 1960, Jacques Piccard and Navy Lt. Don Walsh reached this goal in a U.S. Navy submersible, a bathyscaphe called the Trieste. My intention is to provide anyone who seeks it, useful information regarding the medal commemorating the 1872-76 worldwide voyage of HMS Challenger, which (in hindsight) celebrates the beginning of the modern science of oceanography. It is thought that the pressure is so great that calcium can’t exist except in solution, so the bones of vertebrates would literally dissolve. Lords Campbell and Balfour left the ship in Valparaiso, Chile, after being promoted. On March 26, 2012, National Geographic Explorer James Cameron made a record-breaking solo dive to the Earth’s deepest point. [5] It was loaded with specimen jars, filled with alcohol for preservation of samples, microscopes and chemical apparatus, trawls and dredges, thermometers, barometers, water sampling bottles, sounding leads, devices to collect sediment from the sea bed and great lengths of rope with which to suspend the equipment into the ocean depths. [8] About 4,700 new species of marine life were discovered. A couple of weeks later, in mid-August, the ship departed south-eastward, anchoring at Hilo Bay off Hawaii's Big Island, before continuing to the south and reaching Tahiti in mid-September. [2] Also among the officers was Thomas Henry Tizard, who had carried out important hydrographic observations on previous voyages. called the Challenger Deep, is 11,020 m (36,000 ft or nearly 7 mi) below the ocean's surface and was reached in 1960 by U.S. Navy The depths of the Mariana Trench were first plumbed in 1875 by the British ship H.M.S. Site design by Neo-Pangea. Sir Thompson, a faculty member at the University of Edinburgh, was keen to begin an oceanic exploration with the full-fledged support of the scientists’ community and the British governmental authorities. [citation needed], Modern soundings to 6,012 fathoms (36,070 ft; 10,994 m) have since been found near the site of the Challenger's original sounding. HMS Challenger, a wooden corvette of 2,306 tons, was commanded by Captain (later Sir) George Strong Nares, while Sir C. Wyville Thomson supervised the scientific staff. R. M. Corfield. Louis Agassiz believed that in the deeps "we should expect to find representatives of earlier geological periods." Trawls were large metal nets towed behind the ship to collect organisms at different depths of water. HMS Challenger was probably the first official expedition to carry a photographer as well as an artist. [7], On its 68,890-nautical-mile (79,280 mi; 127,580 km) journey circumnavigating the globe,[1] 492 deep sea soundings, 133 bottom dredges, 151 open water trawls and 263 serial water temperature observations were taken. The ship left Montevideo at the end of February, heading first due east and then due north, arriving at Ascension Island at the end of March 1876. Archive entry for journals of Andrew F. Balfour, including three from HMS, Neptune's Laboratory: Fantasy, Fear, and Science at Sea, Centenary of the Challenger Expedition, 1872–1876, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Challenger_expedition&oldid=996615022, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Water from the bottom, however, was collected by specifically designed instruments, for example the Slip Water-Bottle. The Challenger scientists recorded a depth of 4,475 fathoms (about five miles, or eight kilometers) using a weighted sounding rope. When? Challenger II returned to the spot with an echo-sounder and measured a depth of nearly 7 miles (11 kilometers). [5], Challenger reached Hong Kong in December 1874, at which point Nares and Aldrich left the ship to take part in the British Arctic Expedition. Permits for research in the Challenger Deep have been secured from the Federated States of Micronesia. In 1960, Jacques Piccard and Navy Lt. Don Walsh, Photo Gallery: U.S. Marine Protected Areas, Film Released for IMAX®, Giant Screen, and Digital Cinemas, DEEPSEA CHALLENGE 3D, In Theaters August 8, 2014. The journey eastward along the coast from Melbourne to Sydney took place in April 1874, passing by Wilsons Promontory and Cape Howe. Pressure increases with depth. It could!”. This site will act as a forum for all aspects on the voyage of H.M.S. The official expedition artist was John James Wild. The line was marked in 25-fathom (150 ft; 46 m) intervals with flags denoting depth. MORE ABOUT MARINE PROTECTED AREAS: We will send regular updates as the expedition progresses. [17], Before the Challenger voyage, oceanography had been mainly speculative. The historic voyage of the British ship HMS Challenger, conducted between 1872-1876, is considered to be the first expedition undertaken specifically to conduct oceanographic research. scientists could take delicate samples without damaging them. The Challenger was a corvette class ship, a military vessel that traveled under sail but had auxiliary steam power, which helped to stabilize the vessel during sampling. HMS Challenger Expedition The chief proponent of the Challenger exploration was British natural scientist, Sir Charles Thompson. Challenger 1873–1876. Nobody knows, and this is the whole point of the DEEPSEA CHALLENGE project, to find answers to such fundamental questions. To investigate the distribution of organic life at different depths and on the deep seafloor. Because of its extreme depth, the Mariana Trench is cloaked in perpetual darkness and the temperature is just a few degrees above freezing. Furthermore, in the process of preserving specimens in alcohol, chemist John Young Buchanan and Sir Thomson realized that he had inadvertently debunked Huxley's prior report of Bathybius haeckelii, an acellular protoplasm covering the sea bottoms, which was purported to be the link between non-living matter and living cells. Challenger reached the Falkland Islands towards the end of January, calling at Port Stanley and then continuing northward, reaching Montevideo in Uruguay in mid-February 1876. The expedition called at Samboangan (Zamboanga) on Mindanao, and then Iloilo on the island of Panay, before navigating within the interior of the archipelago en route to the bay and harbour of Manila on the island of Luzon. Challenger during the years of 1872–76 (page 877)", "IHO-IOC GEBCO Gazetteer of Undersea Feature Names", "Challenger (STA-099, OV-99): Background". The Ship 1873-1876 6 scientist led From here, the route taken in late April and early May 1876 was a westward loop to the north out into the mid-Atlantic, eventually turning due east towards Europe to touch land at Vigo in Spain towards the end of May. Challenger Deep. Challenger II returned to the spot with an echo-sounder and measured a depth of nearly 7 miles (11 kilometers). Some specimens, many of which were the first discovered of their kind, are still examined by scientists today. The expedition gathered observations from 362 stations and made 492 deep soundings and 133 dredgings. Challenger as part of the first global oceanographic cruise. The ship then crossed the Banda Sea touching at the Banda Islands, to reach Amboina (Ambon Island) in October 1874, and then continuing to Ternate Island. In 1951, the British vessel H.M.S. [citation needed], The final stops, before heading out into the Atlantic, were Port Famine, Sandy Point, and Elizabeth Island. From Samboangan the ship diverged from the inward route, this time passing south of Mindanao—in early-February 1875. [2] As well as Nares and Maclear, others that were part of the naval crew included Pelham Aldrich, George Granville Campbell, and Andrew Francis Balfour (one of the sons of Scottish botanist John Hutton Balfour). Challenger scientists recorded a depth of nearly 7 miles ( 11 kilometers ) 1895, hms challenger 2 expedition. A mile ( 1.6 kilometers ) life exist in the deeps `` we should expect find. Their 3‐week voyage in polar waters during February‐March 1874 skills were modest but the scientific legacy this. Important hydrographic observations on previous voyages was in the deeps `` we should expect to find answers to such questions... After that, the Challenger expedition laid the groundwork for an entire and! Course of scientific History used methods that were developed in prior small-scale expeditions to make observations Royal. 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